Category Archives: Turkey

Expanding Horizons for US-Turkey Trade?

It was announced this week that Turkey’s Economy Minister has proposed the upcoming creation of a working group for a US-Turkey Free Trade Agreement (FTA). This overlapped a visit to Washington by a Turkish delegation which included a US Chamber of Commerce hosted event in honor of Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Ali Babacan on Wednesday. The recurring theme in that event by seemingly all the speakers was the need to expand US-Turkish bilateral trade. Certain indicators albeit perhaps anecdotal can lead one to think that this relationship will only grow over time.

Most measures indicate that Turkey’s economy has been booming in the past decade.  Indeed, it is now the world’s 17th largest. According to the US Trade Representative’s Office, US exports to Turkey increased 38% in 2012 alone, and the general figure is 292% from 2000. However, anybody who visits Turkey will likely notice that US commercial penetration is probably not where it should be and Turkey’s business footprint in the US is still somewhat faint. More can clearly be done.

As Turkey works to expand its economic influence throughout the globe, it is only natural that trade with the United States will increase.  Furthermore, it is to be expected that US interest in Turkish trade will also expand as Turkey will become a more critical regional and global player.  Given Turkey’s goal of becoming a top 10 economic power by 2023, Turkey and the US may find their economic ties increasingly indispensable and needing of expansion.

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Will Sanctions Cost You Your Bank Account?

An increasing issue I am seeing with Iranian-American clients is banks in the United States closing their bank accounts. Why? Reasons can vary, but perhaps the sanctions and anti-money laundering (AML) regulations have a role in this. Indeed from national banks to small banks, we have seen a number of people receive notice from their bank that their account will be shut down.  Believe it or not, OFAC regulations on Iran, Cuba, Syria, and other countries could have a role here.  Clearly it does not happen for everybody, but it does happen.  In the past, the fear was mainly that your bank may reject an innocuous incoming wire coming into your account. That concern is still very, very real, but fear not, there are ways to help reduce the risk of account closure happening to you.

Why is my bank closing my account?

There can be a number of reasons here, but we’re only going to focus on the sanctions issues. Due to many regulations aimed at preventing money laundering and sanctions violations, many banks appear to be taking increasingly conservative positions and more carefully scrutinizing account activity. Each bank has its own criteria as to what constitutes “high risk” in a given bank account and discretion over what accounts they will close.  Reasons can vary – too many foreign wires coming into your account (for example, from Kuwait, Hong Kong, Dubai, etc.) or perhaps transactions that are not consistent with your financial profile (say receiving $200,000 in cash over 5 months when your annual salary is $120,000).

It’s obviously not per se illegal to receive a lot of money in your bank account or receive money from overseas, but don’t forget that the private sector has often taken a much more conservative position that what may be required by the applicable sanctions regulations and laws (I once had a case where a client’s bank in the US had no issue with a licensed transfer, but the same bank’s UAE subsidiary did!).  This means a lot of legitimate activities can face issues. You should really put yourself in the bank’s position – they have responsibilities and they don’t know you that well. So that inheritance from Iran or that gift mom and dad are sending you could look like money laundering to somebody else’s eyes. Why have you (an engineer in Orange County, for example) been receiving wires from Kuwait, Hong Kong, and Turkey in recent months?

How can I prevent a closure from happening?

Each bank has its own standards and criteria in determining what accounts to close and there’s no straight formula. However, there are things one can do to make sure the funds don’t cause problems (don’t forget, another possibility is your bank holding your funds and/or sending the money back to the currency exchange or “sarraf” that sent the funds!).

1. Communicating with the bank.  I often tell clients that it’s safe to say that their branch managers generally don’t make the calls on their account. It’s necessary to talk to the higher ups.  I have found many bank officials to be very accommodating and friendly after a conversation and/or correspondence with them explaining the outstanding logistics issues.  In fact, even I have been presently surprised at the willingness of a number of them to handle legitimate transactions once the conversation or correspondence exchange occurs.

2. Giving your bank written assurances. Preparing affidavits and other supporting documents (depending on the situation) are steps I generally take to help our clients from facing problems. “Papering the transaction” is a way to show the bank that the transaction is authorized, as sometimes an OFAC license might not be enough.

3. If necessary, get a license! It’s amazing how many people muster the bravado to engage in transactions in Iran that require OFAC licenses, well, without a license. Then they try to send the funds. Be they profits from a family business you have had no role in, or the proceeds of a house you sold in Iran, some transactions definitely need license.  I will note, however, that not all transactions need a license. You should make sure of the status of your transaction – is it generally licensed or does it require specific authorization? An OFAC license can help move things quicker (and help you in a potential enforcement issue – remember, rejected funds result in reports to OFAC, which can then follow-up with you through an Administrative Subpoena).

4. Use the OFAC License Number!  As specific licenses issued by OFAC often tend to state, you should use the OFAC License number in the payment description. This will help the bank see that the incoming transfer is licensed, likely helping reduce potential red flags.  Even when a transaction does not need an OFAC license (as not all transfers do) it is still important to make sure you have crossed all your t’s and dotted all your i’s.

Naturally, these are just some of the steps that can be done. You still have the natural requirements that you ensure that no Specially Designated Nationals (SDNs) are involved in the transfer and that the funds from Iran are processed through a non-U.S., non-Iranian bank in a third country.  While there is no guaranteed way to prevent problems, the above steps could potentially help you a great bit.

Yes, You Can Still Transfer Funds From Iran

The recent news on increased sanctions on Iran has stirred concern among many that transferring funds out of Iran is no longer permitted.  This is not true.  Although the Iranian government has itself placed certain limits on foreign exchange trading, transfers for specifically or generally licensed activities are still permitted, subject to certain conditions.

How does this work? President Obama Issued an Executive Order (13599) in early February which effectively called for the blocking of any funds coming into US jurisdiction in which Iranian financial institutions have an interest. Remember, blocking is different from rejection – blocking is when the entity (such as the bank) coming into control of the funds effectively freezes the money and places it in an interest-bearing account (which you cannot access until the block is removed), whereas rejecting is when the money is sent back to the sender.

Does this mean that all types of family gifts, inheritances, and sale proceeds of real estate holdings in Iran will be blocked? No.  Along with Executive Order 13599 came General License B, which preserves a previously existing exception in the Iranian Transactions Regulations (ITR).  General License B states that US banks can still process authorized funds such as family remittances, to and from Iran.  This is of course conditioned upon the the funds being processed through a third country (e.g., Turkey, Kuwait, or UAE) bank subject to certain other restrictions.

What has become increasingly important is that individuals conducting banking activities with foreign countries need to be exceptionally careful that their bank in the US knows what is going on. There are several ways to help reduce the risk of your bank mistakenly rejecting the funds or closing your account altogether (a phenomenon I’m seeing increasingly).